Saturday, September 3, 2011

Tok Janggut, Dato Maharajalela dan Rosly Dhoby

Tok Janggut, Dato’ Maharajalela, Rosly Dhoby dari kacamata Wikipedia


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Tok Janggut

Tok Janggut or Haji Mohd Hassan bin Munas (1853 - June 25, 1915) was a famous Malay warrior in Kelantan, Malaysia during British protectorate.
He was named Tok Janggut because of his long beard, almost reaching his chest ('janggut' being the Malay word for beard).
Tok Janggut received his early education in Mecca and was a master of silat, a Malaysian martial art.
After the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, Britain took over the administration of Kelantan from Siam, and immediately made significant changes in the administration system. This served as the trigger for rebellion for Tok Janggut.

New tax system 
The British adviser, W. Langham-Carter, even denied that the new tax-system was the major cause of the trouble. He attributed the whole plot efforts originiting in Kota Bharu to oust the British the new land tax that involved both aristocrats there, whom he labelled "Tengkus" and the Sultan.
According to Langham-Carter, however, the aristocrats' ultimate aim was to overthrow the sultan.[2] Britain was making it harder for everyone to pay the tax by either putting them in prison or fining them.
Besides, the behaviour of the British tax officers there seemed unpleasant for the Kelantan civilians who came there to pay the tax.
Sultan's ambivalent attitube towards the rising, the folk legend of  Tok Janggut's disguised pursuit of revenge against the Sultan, and alleged conspiracy among the Kelantanese aristocrats to oust the Sultan[4]

As a result of Tok Janggut's refusal to surrender, British officers in Kelantan took immediate action by burning down Tok Janggut's house, as well as his followers' houses, too.
Tok Janggut immediately replied by laying a siege on Pasir Puteh. This time, luck was on Britains' side, Tok Janggut was killed in the gruesome battle near Kampung Pupuh.
His dead body was exhibited throughout Kota Bharu and Pasir Puteh and was hung for several days in front of the Kelantan Royal Palace.
Tok Janggut's body was buried in Pasir Pekan afterwards, ending the rebellion against British rule in Kelantan.

Dato Maharajalela

Birch was killed on 2 November 1875 by a local Malay chief, Dato Maharajalela and his assistant Seputum, who speared him to death while he was taking bath, nearby a river, in Pasir Salak, near today's Teluk Intan (Teluk Anson).

There is inconsistency as to the reason why Birch was assassinated. One view is that Birch's assassination was because he outlawed slavery in Perak. Dato Maharajalela, whose income depended on capturing and selling the indigenes of Perak or Orang Asli as slaves, was then incensed and plotted with some of the slave-traders to kill Birch by spearing him when he was taking his bath in the river.
The more popular view among rightwing Malay historians indicate that Birch was assassinated because of his disrespect to the local custom and tradition, and conflict with local Malay chiefs.

This is because modern Malay historians generally refuse to accept that the Orang Asli were being traded as slaves in the pre-Colonial era. Some accounts claimed that Birch was arrogant and disrespectful of local customs and the ruling Sultan of Perak, for example by refusing to remove his shoes when he entered the Palace.

To those historians, Dato' Maharajalela is generally celebrated as a folk hero, due to his substantial contribution and seen to be a symbol of the Malay resistance against Colonialism.

In the aftermath of the event, the administration shifted to Taiping. Sultan Abdullah was deposed and sent to exile in Seychelles.
Dato Maharajalela and others involved in the incident were hanged.

Rosli Dhoby

Rosli Dhoby (1932-March 2, 1950) was a Malay Sarawakian nationalist from Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia during the British crown colony era in that state.
He was a member leader of the Rukun 13 organization along with Morshidi Sidek, Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli and Bujang Suntong. It was a secret cell organization which carried out assassinations of British colonial officers in Sarawak. He was well-known for his assassination of Sir Duncan George Stewart, the second governor of colonial Sarawak in 1948.

After a few months languishing in prison, Rosli Dhoby, Awang Ramli Amit Mohd Deli, Morshidi Sidek and Bujang Suntong were found guilty of murder and sentenced to death on December 4, 1949.
This move was criticized by many, as Rosli Dhobi was a juvenile at the time of assassination. The death sentence was nonetheless a political statement.

Rosli Dhoby was sent to the gallows on the morning of March 2, 1950. Fearing the resentment of the local population, the British government did not allow Rosli Dhoby's body to leave the Kuching Central Prison. Instead, his body was interred in an unmarked tomb within the prison compound.

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